13 Feb, 2023

Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime

Vulnerability Assessment as a Service (VAaaS)

Tests systems and applications for vulnerabilities to address weaknesses.

Missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerability refers to a type of security vulnerability that occurs when a software program does not properly release a resource (such as memory, file handles, sockets, database connections, etc.) after it is no longer needed. This can lead to various types of problems, including:

• Resource exhaustion: The software program may continue to consume more and more resources, eventually leading to a complete exhaustion of system resources and a crash or hang of the software or the underlying system.
• Information leakage: The software program may inadvertently expose sensitive information stored in the resource to unauthorized users.
• Security vulnerabilities: The software program may be vulnerable to various types of attacks, such as buffer overflow attacks, when it accesses the resource after it has been freed.

Example of vulnerable code on different programming languages:

C++:

				
					#include <iostream>
#include <string>

int main() {
  std::string *str = new std::string("Hello, World!");
  std::cout << *str << std::endl;
  // The string is not deleted, causing a memory leak
  return 0;
}

				
			

In this example, a string object is dynamically allocated using new, and its contents are printed to the console. However, the object is never deleted, causing a memory leak. The dynamically allocated memory will remain allocated until the program exits, even though it is no longer needed.

Java:

				
					import java.io.*;

public class Main {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    FileInputStream fileInput = null;
    try {
      fileInput = new FileInputStream("file.txt");
      // Use the stream
    } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
      // Handle the exception
    }
    // The file input stream is not closed, causing a resource leak
  }
}

				
			

In this example, a FileInputStream object is created, but it is never closed. This can cause a resource leak, as the underlying file descriptor remains open and the associated resources are not released. This can result in file handles or other system resources becoming exhausted.

Python:

				
					with open("file.txt") as f:
    data = f.read()
    # Use the file data
# The file is not closed, causing a resource leak

				
			

In this example, a file is opened using the with statement, but it is not closed. This can cause a resource leak, as the underlying file descriptor remains open and the associated resources are not released. This can result in file handles or other system resources becoming exhausted.

C#:

				
					using System;
using System.IO;

class Program {
  static void Main(string[] args) {
    FileStream fileStream = new FileStream("file.txt", FileMode.Open);
    // Use the stream
    // The file stream is not closed, causing a resource leak
  }
}

				
			

In this example, a FileStream object is created, but it is never closed. This can cause a resource leak, as the underlying file descriptor remains open and the associated resources are not released. This can result in file handles or other system resources becoming exhausted.

Examples of exploitation Missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerability

  1. Resource exhaustion attack: In this attack, the attacker repeatedly creates and releases the same resource, causing the system to run out of memory or other resources, leading to a denial-of-service (DoS) attack.

  2. Information disclosure attack: In this attack, the attacker is able to access sensitive information that has not been properly cleared from memory after its effective lifetime has expired. This can lead to the exposure of confidential data, such as passwords or other sensitive information.

  3. Code injection attack: In this attack, the attacker is able to inject malicious code into a program by exploiting a vulnerability in the way resources are handled. This can lead to the execution of arbitrary code and the compromise of the affected system.

  4. Use-after-free attack: In this attack, the attacker is able to access and modify a resource that has been released after its effective lifetime has expired. This can lead to unpredictable behavior, such as crashes or incorrect data being processed.

  5. Integer overflow attack: In this attack, the attacker is able to cause an integer value to overflow, leading to incorrect resource allocation and potentially exploitable behavior.

Privilege escalation techniques for Missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerability

The exploitation of vulnerability can sometimes lead to privilege escalation, where the attacker gains elevated access to sensitive systems or data. Here are some common techniques that can be used for privilege escalation in these scenarios:

  1. Exploiting memory corruption: By exploiting memory corruption caused by a missing resource release, an attacker can overwrite critical memory addresses and modify the program’s flow of execution to gain elevated privileges.

  2. Bypassing access controls: By exploiting a missing resource release, an attacker can bypass access controls and access sensitive information or systems that were previously protected.

  3. Exploiting logic errors: By exploiting logic errors in a program caused by a missing resource release, an attacker can trick the program into executing code with elevated privileges.

  4. Exploiting race conditions: By exploiting race conditions caused by a missing resource release, an attacker can cause a program to execute code with elevated privileges.

General methodology and checklist for Missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerability

The general methodology for preventing vulnerability can be summarized in the following steps:

  1. Identification: Identify the resources that need to be released after their effective lifetime has expired. This can be done through code review, testing, and/or security assessments.

  2. Analysis: Analyze the way resources are being handled in the code to identify potential vulnerabilities. This may involve reviewing the code for proper resource allocation and release, as well as examining error handling and recovery mechanisms.

  3. Correction: Correct any vulnerabilities identified in the analysis phase. This may involve modifying the code to properly release resources after their effective lifetime has expired, implementing error handling and recovery mechanisms, and/or implementing security controls to prevent exploitation.

  4. Testing: Test the code to verify that the vulnerabilities have been correctly addressed and that the code is secure. This may involve unit testing, integration testing, and/or penetration testing.

  5. Monitoring: Monitor the code for signs of exploitation and take corrective action if necessary. This may involve regular security testing, reviewing logs, and/or implementing intrusion detection and response systems.

Here is a checklist of things to consider when addressing “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerability:

Verify that all resources are properly allocated and released after their effective lifetime has expired.
Implement error handling and recovery mechanisms to detect and prevent exploitation.
Use secure coding practices to prevent exploitation, such as input validation, bounds checking, and memory protection.
Regularly test the code to verify its security.
Monitor the code for signs of exploitation and respond promptly to any incidents.

By following this methodology and checklist, you can help to prevent “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerability and protect your systems from exploitation.

Tools set for exploiting Missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerability

Here are ten manual tools for exploiting “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerability:

GDB: A debugger that can be used to inspect memory and identify potential vulnerabilities.
Valgrind: A dynamic analysis tool that can be used to identify memory-related vulnerabilities.
Ollydbg: A debugger that can be used to analyze binary code and identify potential vulnerabilities.
WinDbg: A debugger that can be used to inspect memory and identify potential vulnerabilities on Windows systems.
Immunity Debugger: A debugger that can be used to analyze binary code and identify potential vulnerabilities.
Radare2: A reverse engineering framework that can be used to analyze binary code and identify potential vulnerabilities.
Hex-Rays: A reverse engineering tool that can be used to disassemble binary code and identify potential vulnerabilities.
Ghidra: A reverse engineering tool that can be used to analyze binary code and identify potential vulnerabilities.
Binary Ninja: A reverse engineering tool that can be used to analyze binary code and identify potential vulnerabilities.
IDA Pro: A reverse engineering tool that can be used to disassemble binary code and identify potential vulnerabilities.

Here are ten automatic tools for exploiting “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerability:

AFLSmart: A fuzz testing tool that can be used to automate the discovery of vulnerabilities.
Peach Fuzzer: A fuzz testing tool that can be used to automate the discovery of vulnerabilities.
American Fuzzy Lop (AFL): A fuzz testing tool that can be used to automate the discovery of vulnerabilities.
sulley: A fuzz testing tool that can be used to automate the discovery of vulnerabilities.
honggfuzz: A fuzz testing tool that can be used to automate the discovery of vulnerabilities.
AFLFast: A fuzz testing tool that can be used to automate the discovery of vulnerabilities.
Manticore: A fuzz testing tool that can be used to automate the discovery of vulnerabilities.
AFLGo: A fuzz testing tool that can be used to automate the discovery of vulnerabilities.
KLEE: A symbolic execution engine that can be used to automatically discover vulnerabilities.
Z3: A theorem prover that can be used to automatically discover vulnerabilities through formal verification.

Average CVSS score of stack Missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerability

The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is a standardized method for scoring the severity of security vulnerabilities. The average CVSS score of a “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerability will depend on various factors such as the impact of the vulnerability, the likelihood of exploitation, and the ease of detection and correction.

Typically, Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime vulnerability can result in a wide range of consequences, including denial of service, information leakage, and potential exploitation. The CVSS score for this type of vulnerability can range from low to high, depending on the specifics of the vulnerability.

For example, if the vulnerability allows an attacker to cause a denial of service or leak sensitive information, the CVSS score is likely to be higher (e.g., 8.0 or higher). On the other hand, if the vulnerability is difficult to exploit or has limited impact, the CVSS score may be lower (e.g., 2.0 or lower).

In general, it’s important to understand that the CVSS score is just one factor to consider when evaluating the severity of a vulnerability. Other factors, such as the specific context in which the vulnerability occurs, should also be taken into account.

The Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE)

The Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) is a standardized list of software weaknesses and vulnerabilities. “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities can be classified into several CWE categories, depending on the specifics of the vulnerability. Here are ten relevant CWE categories for these vulnerabilities:

CWE-401: Improper Release of Memory Before Removing Last Reference (‘Memory Leak’)
CWE-404: Improper Resource Shutdown or Release
CWE-415: Double Free
CWE-416: Use After Free
CWE-788: Access of Memory Location After End of Lifetime
CWE-824: Access of Uninitialized Pointer
CWE-820: Improper Resource Management in a Reusable Library
CWE-823: Use of Out-of-Range Pointer Offset
CWE-835: Loop with Unreachable Exit Condition (‘Infinite Loop’)
CWE-888: Access of Resource After Expiration or Release

Missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerability  exploits

A missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerability occurs when a program does not properly release or deallocate resources that are no longer needed. This can lead to a variety of consequences, including:

  1. Memory Leaks: The program continues to consume memory, potentially leading to a denial of service (DoS) as the system runs out of available memory.

  2. Use-After-Free: The program continues to use resources that have already been freed, leading to undefined behavior, crashes, or even remote code execution.

  3. Double Free: The program tries to free the same resource multiple times, leading to crashes or undefined behavior.

  4. Information Leakage: The program may leak sensitive information stored in the un-freed resources, such as passwords, keys, or other confidential data.

Exploitation of vulnerability may involve several steps, including:

  1. Finding the vulnerable code: This may involve using static or dynamic analysis tools, reviewing source code, or conducting manual testing to identify the resources that are not being properly freed.

  2. Exploiting the vulnerability: This may involve creating a test case that triggers the vulnerability, such as freeing a resource multiple times or attempting to access a resource after it has been freed.

  3. Escalating privileges: If the vulnerability is exploitable, an attacker may use it to escalate privileges or gain access to sensitive information.

Practicing in test for Missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerability

  1. Code Review: Reviewing the source code to identify any potential resource leaks or improper resource management. This may involve using static analysis tools or reviewing the code manually.

  2. Dynamic Analysis: Running the program in a controlled environment, such as a virtual machine, to observe its behavior and identify any resource leaks or improper resource management.

  3. Fuzz Testing: Automatically generating large amounts of random input data to test the program and identify any crashes or undefined behavior that may indicate a resource leak or improper resource management.

  4. Penetration Testing: Conducting a simulated attack on the program to identify any vulnerabilities that may be exploitable, including “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities.

  5. Memory Debugging: Using memory debugging tools, such as Valgrind or Address Sanitizer, to identify any resource leaks or improper resource management.

For study Missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerability

  1. Books: “Secure Coding in C and C++” by Robert C. Seacord, and “The Art of Memory Forensics: Detecting Malware and Threats in Windows, Linux, and Mac Memory” by Michael Hale Ligh, Andrew Case, Jamie Levy, and AAron Walters.

  2. Websites: OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) website and CWE (Common Weakness Enumeration) website both provide information on this type of vulnerability.

  3. Courses: Coursera offers several courses on cyber security and software security, including “Cybersecurity Fundamentals” and “Software Security”.

  4. Conferences: Attend security conferences, such as Black Hat USA and DEFCON, to learn about the latest developments in the field of software security and “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities.

  5. Online Communities: Participate in online communities, such as Reddit and Stack Overflow, to connect with other security professionals and learn about new tools, techniques, and best practices for identifying and mitigating these types of vulnerabilities.

Books with review of Missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerability

  1. “Secure Coding in C and C++” by Robert C. Seacord: This book provides a comprehensive overview of secure coding practices in C and C++, including an in-depth discussion of “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities.

  2. “The Art of Software Security Assessment” by Mark Dowd, John McDonald, and Justin Schuh: This book provides a comprehensive overview of software security assessment techniques, including a section on “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities and how to identify and remediate these types of vulnerabilities.

  3. “Hacking: The Art of Exploitation” by Jon Erickson: This book provides an introduction to the world of hacking and exploitation, including a section on “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities and how to exploit these types of vulnerabilities.

  4. “Practical Malware Analysis” by Michael Sikorski and Andrew Honig: This book provides a practical guide to malware analysis, including a section on “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities and how these types of vulnerabilities can be used to spread malware.

List of payloads Missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerability

Examples of payloads for “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities include:

  1. Excessive resource allocation: Allocating more resources than the program can handle, such as excessive amounts of memory, file handles, or network connections, can trigger a resource leak and lead to a “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerability.

  2. Malicious input data: Inputting malicious data into the program, such as unexpected or oversized input, can cause the program to crash or behave in unexpected ways, potentially exposing a “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerability.

  3. Interrupting the normal resource release process: Interrupting the normal process by which resources are released after they are no longer needed, such as by sending an unexpected signal or terminating the process, can cause the program to leak resources and expose a “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerability.

  4. Crafting specific memory patterns: Creating specific memory patterns or input data that trigger unexpected behavior in the program can expose “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities, such as buffer overflows or use-after-free errors.

How to be protected from Missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerability

Sigma rules and firewall rules can be used to detect and block attempts to exploit missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerabilities. The specific rules will depend on the nature of the vulnerability and the technology being used, but in general, the following can be used:

  1. Sigma rules for detecting resource leaks: Sigma rules can be used to detect excessive resource allocation, such as a large number of file handles being opened in a short period of time, which could indicate a “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerability.

  2. Firewall rules for blocking malicious input: Firewall rules can be used to block incoming traffic that contains malicious input data, such as unexpected or oversized input, which could trigger a “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerability.

  3. Firewall rules for interrupting normal resource release process: Firewall rules can be used to interrupt the normal resource release process by blocking unexpected signals or termination of the process, helping to prevent resource leaks and “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities.

Mitigations for Missing release of resource after effective lifetime vulnerability

  1. Proper resource management: Properly managing resources, such as memory, file handles, and network connections, can help prevent resource leaks and reduce the risk of “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities.

  2. Input validation: Validating input data to ensure it is within expected bounds and free of malicious content can help prevent the program from crashing or behaving in unexpected ways, reducing the risk of “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities.

  3. Exception handling: Properly handling exceptions, such as unexpected signals or termination of the process, can help ensure that resources are properly released, even in the event of an interruption to the normal resource release process.

  4. Code reviews: Conducting code reviews to identify and address potential “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities can be an effective way to reduce the risk of these types of vulnerabilities.

  5. Use of security tools: Using security tools, such as memory and resource leak detectors, can help identify “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities early in the development process, allowing for quick remediation.

  6. Regular software updates: Keeping software up-to-date with the latest security patches and updates can help reduce the risk of “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities by addressing known vulnerabilities.

  7. Regular security testing: Regularly performing security testing, such as penetration testing, can help identify “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities and provide information on how to remediate them.

Conclusion

In conclusion, missing release of resource after effective lifetime is a type of vulnerability that can result from improper resource management in software programs. It can lead to resource leaks and potentially serious security issues, such as data loss or exploitation by attackers. To mitigate these risks, it is important to follow best practices for resource management, input validation, and exception handling, as well as regularly conducting code reviews, using security tools, updating software, and performing security testing. By taking these steps, organizations can reduce the risk of “Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime” vulnerabilities and ensure the security and stability of their software programs

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