24 Feb, 2023

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attacks

Vulnerability Assessment as a Service (VAaaS)

Tests systems and applications for vulnerabilities to address weaknesses.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attacks are a type of cyber attack where a large number of computers, devices or systems are used to overwhelm a targeted server or network with traffic, causing it to become unavailable to legitimate users.

In a DDoS attack, the attacker typically uses a botnet (a network of compromised devices) to flood the target with an overwhelming amount of traffic or requests, often with the intention of disrupting or disabling the target’s online services. The attack can cause significant financial loss and damage to the reputation of the targeted organization, and can also impact the users who rely on the services provided by the target.

Example of vulnerable code on different programming languages:


in PHP:

				
					<?php
$ip = $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'];
$filename = 'log.txt';
$file = fopen($filename, 'a');
fwrite($file, $ip."\n");
fclose($file);
?>

				
			


This PHP code logs the IP address of the user visiting the webpage to a file. However, if an attacker sends a large number of requests to this page, it can cause the log file to grow rapidly and consume a lot of disk space, leading to a DDoS attack.

• in Python:

				
					import socket

HOST = ''
PORT = 8888

s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
s.bind((HOST, PORT))
s.listen(1)

conn, addr = s.accept()
print('Connected by', addr)
while True:
    data = conn.recv(1024)
    if not data: break
    conn.sendall(data)
conn.close()

				
			


This Python code creates a simple TCP server that echoes back any data it receives. If an attacker sends a large amount of data to this server, it can cause the server to consume a lot of resources and become unresponsive, leading to a DDoS attack.

• in Java:

				
					import java.io.*;
import java.net.*;

public class EchoServer {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
        ServerSocket serverSocket = new ServerSocket(8888);
        Socket clientSocket = serverSocket.accept();
        PrintWriter out = new PrintWriter(clientSocket.getOutputStream(), true);
        BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(clientSocket.getInputStream()));

        String inputLine;
        while ((inputLine = in.readLine()) != null) {
            out.println(inputLine);
        }
    }
}

				
			


This Java code creates a simple TCP server that echoes back any data it receives. If an attacker sends a large amount of data to this server, it can cause the server to consume a lot of resources and become unresponsive, leading to a DDoS attack.

Examples of exploitation Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

Botnet attacks:

Botnets are networks of compromised devices that are controlled by an attacker. An attacker can use a botnet to launch a DDoS attack on a target by sending a large number of requests from the compromised devices to overwhelm the target’s servers. The attacker can use a variety of methods to infect devices and add them to the botnet, such as through malware, phishing attacks, or exploiting vulnerabilities in the devices.

Amplification attacks:

Amplification attacks involve sending a small request to a vulnerable server that responds with a much larger response. Attackers can use this technique to amplify the size of their attack and overwhelm the target’s servers. For example, an attacker can use the DNS amplification attack to send a small DNS query to a vulnerable DNS server that responds with a large DNS response, which is then directed to the target’s server.

Application-layer attacks:

Application-layer attacks target the application layer of a target’s server and exploit vulnerabilities in the software. These attacks can be difficult to detect as they mimic legitimate traffic, and they can be launched using a single device or a botnet. For example, an attacker can launch an HTTP flood attack that sends a large number of HTTP requests to a target’s server, overwhelming it and causing it to become unresponsive.

Reflection attacks:

Reflection attacks involve using a vulnerable server to send traffic to the target server, amplifying the attack. For example, an attacker can use a vulnerable NTP server to send NTP traffic to a target’s server, amplifying the attack and overwhelming the target’s servers.

Privilege escalation techniques for Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

Exploiting unpatched vulnerabilities:

Attackers can exploit unpatched vulnerabilities in the operating system, software, or applications running on the target system to gain unauthorized access or elevated privileges.

Brute force attacks:

Brute force attacks involve guessing usernames and passwords until the attacker gains access to the target system. Attackers can use automated tools to carry out brute force attacks and gain access to the target system.

Social engineering:

Attackers may use social engineering techniques such as phishing to trick users into giving up their login credentials or other sensitive information that can be used to gain access to the target system.

Exploiting misconfigured permissions:

Attackers can exploit misconfigured permissions on the target system to gain unauthorized access or elevated privileges. For example, if a user has been granted administrative privileges but does not have proper permissions set up, an attacker can exploit this vulnerability to gain administrative access to the target system.

General methodology and checklist for Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

Methodology:

  1. Identify potential attack vectors: the first step in testing for DDoS attacks is to identify potential attack vectors, which are the methods that attackers may use to launch a DDoS attack. This can include network-based attacks, application-based attacks, or amplification attacks.

  2. Conduct vulnerability assessments: once the potential attack vectors have been identified, conduct vulnerability assessments on the target system to identify any vulnerabilities that could be exploited by an attacker. This can include assessing the network infrastructure, applications, and operating systems for vulnerabilities.

  3. Develop a test plan: that outlines the testing methodology, tools, and techniques that will be used to test the target system for DDoS vulnerabilities. This should include the specific tests that will be conducted, the tools and techniques that will be used, and the expected results.

  4. Conduct testing: using the test plan developed in the previous step. This can include simulating DDoS attacks to determine the impact on the target system, as well as testing for vulnerabilities that could be exploited by an attacker.

  5. Analyze results: of the testing to identify any vulnerabilities or weaknesses that were discovered. This can include analyzing logs and other data to determine the nature and scope of the vulnerabilities and the impact that they could have on the target system.

  6. Develop recommendations: for addressing the vulnerabilities and weaknesses that were identified during the testing. This can include recommendations for patching vulnerabilities, implementing security controls, and improving network and application security.

  7. Retest:  the target system after implementing the recommended changes to ensure that the vulnerabilities have been addressed and that the system is no longer vulnerable to DDoS attacks.

Checklist:

  1. Identify the different types of DDoS attacks that could be launched against the target system, such as network-based attacks, application-based attacks, and amplification attacks.

  2. Evaluate the network infrastructure for potential weaknesses that could be exploited by an attacker, such as misconfigured routers or firewalls.

  3. Assess the security of any applications that are running on the target system, including web applications and database servers.

  4. Check for vulnerabilities in the target system by using vulnerability scanners and other tools.

  5. Test the network bandwidth to determine if it can handle a large volume of traffic.

  6. Test the capacity of the target system to determine if it can handle a large number of requests.

  7. Monitor traffic patterns to detect any unusual traffic that could be indicative of a DDoS attack.

  8. Conduct penetration testing to identify any weaknesses in the system that could be exploited by an attacker.

  9. Test the incident response plan to ensure that it is effective in responding to a DDoS attack.

  10. Review logs to identify any unusual activity or traffic patterns that could be indicative of a DDoS attack.

  11. Develop recommendations for addressing any vulnerabilities or weaknesses that were identified during testing.

  12. Retest the target system after implementing the recommended changes to ensure that the system is no longer vulnerable to DDoS attacks.

Tools set for exploiting Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

Automated Tools:

  • LOIC (Low Orbit Ion Cannon): A widely used open-source network stress testing tool that is easy to use and can launch DDoS attacks. LOIC allows users to specify the target and the type of attack to launch, such as TCP, UDP, or HTTP flooding.

  • HOIC (High Orbit Ion Cannon): Similar to LOIC, HOIC is an open-source network stress testing tool that allows users to launch DDoS attacks by specifying the target and type of attack. HOIC is known for its ability to generate high volumes of traffic and can be controlled by a command and control server.

  • XOIC: Another open-source network stress testing tool that allows users to launch DDoS attacks. XOIC is known for its simplicity and user-friendly interface, and it can be used for TCP, UDP, and HTTP flooding.

  • T50: A fast and efficient network stress testing tool that is designed to launch DDoS attacks. T50 is known for its ability to generate large volumes of traffic, and it can be used for both TCP and UDP flooding.

  • HULK (Http Unbearable Load King): An open-source tool that allows users to launch DDoS attacks against web servers by flooding them with HTTP requests. HULK is known for its ability to generate a large number of requests per second and for its use of randomized user agents and referers.

  • PyLoris: An open-source tool that allows users to launch DDoS attacks against web servers by flooding them with HTTP requests. PyLoris is known for its ability to launch slowloris attacks, which are designed to tie up web server resources by sending incomplete HTTP requests.

  • UFONet: An open-source DDoS tool that allows users to launch various types of DDoS attacks, including HTTP, UDP, and TCP flooding. UFONet is known for its ability to bypass security measures, such as rate limiting and IP blocking.

  • Memcrashed: An automated DDoS attack tool that leverages the Memcached protocol to amplify attacks by up to 50,000 times. Memcrashed can generate extremely large volumes of traffic and can be used to launch UDP, TCP, and HTTP attacks.

  • Mirai: A malware that infects IoT devices and turns them into a botnet for launching DDoS attacks. Mirai is known for its ability to launch massive DDoS attacks, including one that reached 1.1 Tbps in 2018.

  • WireX: A malware that infects Android devices and turns them into a botnet for launching DDoS attacks. WireX is known for its ability to launch DDoS attacks from thousands of devices at once.

Manual Tools:

  • Slowloris: A manual DDoS attack tool that is designed to tie up web server resources by sending incomplete HTTP requests. Slowloris is known for its ability to launch low-bandwidth DDoS attacks that can be difficult to detect.

  • R-U-Dead-Yet: A manual DDoS attack tool that is designed to exploit the vulnerability of certain web servers to HTTP POST requests. R-U-Dead-Yet sends a series of specially crafted HTTP POST requests to the target server, which can cause it to crash or become unresponsive.

  • Torshammer: A manual DDoS attack tool that is designed to launch low-bandwidth attacks against web servers by establishing multiple connections

  • GoldenEye: A manual DDoS attack tool that is designed to launch HTTP and HTTPS flooding attacks against web servers. GoldenEye is known for its ability to launch high-bandwidth attacks and can also generate randomized user agents and referers.

  • Rudy (R-U-Dead-Yet): A manual DDoS attack tool that is similar to R-U-Dead-Yet, but it is designed to exploit the vulnerability of certain web servers to HTTP GET requests. Rudy sends a series of specially crafted HTTP GET requests to the target server, which can cause it to crash or become unresponsive.

  • OWASP Doser: A manual DDoS attack tool that is designed to launch HTTP flooding attacks against web servers. OWASP Doser allows users to specify the target URL, the number of threads to use, and the number of requests to send per thread.

  • DDoS Deflate: A manual DDoS attack tool that is designed to protect web servers from DDoS attacks by blocking traffic from known botnets. DDoS Deflate uses iptables to block traffic from known botnet IPs, and it can be configured to block traffic based on a threshold of requests per IP.

  • Scapy: A Python-based tool that can be used for packet manipulation and network testing, including DDoS attacks. Scapy allows users to create and send customized packets, including TCP, UDP, and ICMP packets, which can be used to launch various types of DDoS attacks.

  • Hping: A command-line tool that can be used for packet manipulation and network testing, including DDoS attacks. Hping allows users to create and send customized packets, including TCP, UDP, and ICMP packets, and it can also be used to launch TCP and UDP flooding attacks.

  • ZMap: An open-source network scanner that can be used for DDoS testing. ZMap is designed to scan the entire IPv4 address space in a matter of minutes, which can be useful for identifying potential targets for DDoS attacks.

Browser Plugins:

  • FoxyProxy: A browser plugin that allows users to easily switch between different proxy servers, which can be useful for testing DDoS attacks from different IP addresses.

  • Tamper Data: A browser plugin that allows users to modify and intercept HTTP requests and responses, which can be useful for testing DDoS attacks against web servers.

  • Web Developer: A browser plugin that allows users to view and manipulate various aspects of web pages, including HTTP headers and cookies, which can be useful for testing DDoS attacks against web servers.

The Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE)

CWE-400: Uncontrolled Resource Consumption (‘Resource Exhaustion’): This weakness refers to the lack of proper limits on the amount of resources that can be consumed by an application, which can be exploited to launch DDoS attacks.

CWE-611: Improper Restriction of XML External Entity Reference: This weakness occurs when an application processes XML input from untrusted sources without proper validation, which can be exploited to launch DDoS attacks through the use of malicious XML payloads.

CWE-613: Insufficient Session Expiration: This weakness refers to the lack of proper session management, which can be exploited to launch DDoS attacks by creating large numbers of open sessions that consume server resources.

CWE-693: Protection Mechanism Failure: This weakness occurs when a security mechanism that is intended to protect against DDoS attacks fails due to design or implementation flaws.

CWE-709: Timing Attack: This weakness occurs when an attacker can use timing differences in an application’s response to determine sensitive information, which can be exploited to launch DDoS attacks that overload server resources.

CWE-724: OWASP Top Ten 2007 Category A7 – Insufficient Attack Protection: This weakness occurs when an application does not have sufficient protections in place to prevent DDoS attacks or mitigate their impact.

CWE-788: Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer: This weakness occurs when an application accesses memory beyond the end of a buffer, which can be exploited to launch DDoS attacks by causing the application to crash or become unresponsive.

CWE-835: Loop with Unreachable Exit Condition (‘Infinite Loop’): This weakness occurs when an application enters an infinite loop, which can be exploited to launch DDoS attacks by causing the application to consume large amounts of resources.

CWE-937: OWASP Top Ten 2017 Category A7 – Insufficient Attack Protection: This weakness is similar to CWE-724, but it applies to the OWASP Top Ten 2017 list of most critical web application security risks.

CWE-1021: Improper Restriction of Web Communications Relative to Security Policy: This weakness occurs when an application allows web communications that violate its security policy, which can be exploited to launch DDoS attacks through the use of malicious web traffic.

CVES related to Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

CVE-2022-31006 – indy-node is the server portion of Hyperledger Indy, a distributed ledger purpose-built for decentralized identity. In vulnerable versions of indy-node, an attacker can max out the number of client connections allowed by the ledger, leaving the ledger unable to be used for its intended purpose. However, the ledger content will not be impacted and the ledger will resume functioning after the attack. This attack exploits the trade-off between resilience and availability. Any protection against abusive client connections will also prevent the network being accessed by certain legitimate users. As a result, validator nodes must tune their firewall rules to ensure the right trade-off for their network’s expected users. The guidance to network operators for the use of firewall rules in the deployment of Indy networks has been modified to better protect against denial of service attacks by increasing the cost and complexity in mounting such attacks. The mitigation for this vulnerability is not in the Hyperledger Indy code per se, but rather in the individual deployments of Indy. The mitigations should be applied to all deployments of Indy, and are not related to a particular release.

CVE-2021-34697 – A vulnerability in the Protection Against Distributed Denial of Service Attacks feature of Cisco IOS XE Software could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to conduct denial of service (DoS) attacks to or through the affected device. This vulnerability is due to incorrect programming of the half-opened connections limit, TCP SYN flood limit, or TCP SYN cookie features when the features are configured in vulnerable releases of Cisco IOS XE Software. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by attempting to flood traffic to or through the affected device. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to initiate a DoS attack to or through an affected device.

CVE-2019-9750 – In IoTivity through 1.3.1, the CoAP server interface can be used for Distributed Denial of Service attacks using source IP address spoofing and UDP-based traffic amplification. The reflected traffic is 6 times bigger than spoofed requests. This occurs because the construction of a “4.01 Unauthorized” response is mishandled. NOTE: the vendor states “While this is an interesting attack, there is no plan for maintainer to fix, as we are migrating to IoTivity Lite.”

Distributed Denial of Service Attacks exploits

  • UDP flood: This is a type of DDoS attack that floods a target system with UDP packets, overwhelming its ability to process and respond to legitimate traffic.

  • TCP SYN flood: This is a type of DDoS attack that floods a target system with TCP SYN packets, overwhelming its ability to process and respond to legitimate traffic.

  • HTTP flood: This is a type of DDoS attack that floods a target system with HTTP requests, overwhelming its ability to process and respond to legitimate traffic.

  • Ping of Death: This is a type of DDoS attack that sends oversized packets or a stream of malformed packets to a target system, causing it to crash or become unresponsive.

  • Slowloris: This is a type of DDoS attack that targets web servers by sending a large number of slow HTTP requests, which tie up server resources and prevent legitimate requests from being processed.

  • DNS amplification: This is a type of DDoS attack that exploits vulnerable DNS servers to amplify the size of the attack traffic, making it more difficult to defend against.

  • NTP amplification: This is a type of DDoS attack that exploits vulnerable NTP servers to amplify the size of the attack traffic, making it more difficult to defend against.

  • SSDP amplification: This is a type of DDoS attack that exploits vulnerable SSDP servers to amplify the size of the attack traffic, making it more difficult to defend against.

  • Memcached amplification: This is a type of DDoS attack that exploits vulnerable Memcached servers to amplify the size of the attack traffic, making it more difficult to defend against.

  • Smurf attack: This is a type of DDoS attack that involves sending a large number of ICMP echo requests to the broadcast address of a network, causing all hosts on the network to respond and flood the target system with traffic.

Practicing in test for Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

Set up a test environment: Set up a separate network or virtual environment to simulate an attack and test different mitigation techniques without affecting the production environment.

Conduct penetration testing: Use ethical hacking techniques to simulate a DDoS attack and test the effectiveness of existing security measures.

Use open source tools: There are several open source tools available for testing DDoS attacks, such as LOIC (Low Orbit Ion Cannon), Hping, and Slowhttptest.

Participate in cyber defense competitions: Competitions such as the CyberPatriot competition and the National Cyber League provide opportunities for individuals and teams to practice defending against cyber attacks, including DDoS attacks.

Engage in red teaming: Hire a third-party red team to simulate a DDoS attack and test the effectiveness of existing security measures and response plans.

Train employees: Educate employees on the dangers of DDoS attacks and provide them with the skills and knowledge to identify and respond to these types of attacks.

Develop an incident response plan: Develop a detailed incident response plan that outlines the steps to take in the event of a DDoS attack, including communication protocols and roles and responsibilities.

For study Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

Learn the basics: Start by learning the basics of DDoS attacks, including the different types of attacks, how they work, and their impact on organizations.

Study real-world examples: Research real-world examples of DDoS attacks and their effects on organizations. This can help you better understand the severity and potential consequences of these attacks.

Learn about mitigation techniques: Study the different techniques used to mitigate DDoS attacks, including firewalls, load balancers, and content delivery networks (CDNs).

Explore tools and techniques: Experiment with different tools and techniques used to launch and defend against DDoS attacks, such as open source tools, penetration testing techniques, and network traffic analysis.

Follow industry experts: Follow industry experts and researchers who specialize in DDoS attacks, and stay up-to-date on the latest trends and best practices.

Get hands-on experience: Gain hands-on experience by participating in cyber defense competitions, working on real-world projects, or completing online courses and certifications.

Join communities: Join online communities and forums focused on DDoS attacks and related topics to connect with other professionals and learn from their experiences.

Books with review of Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

DDoS Attacks: Evolution, Detection, Prevention, Reaction, and Tolerance by J. David Irwin: This book provides a comprehensive overview of DDoS attacks, including their history, types, and mitigation techniques. It also covers the legal and ethical implications of DDoS attacks.

Distributed Denial of Service Attack and Defense by Sven Andrä: This book explores the technical details of DDoS attacks and defense mechanisms. It includes case studies and practical guidance for preventing and mitigating DDoS attacks.

Inside DDoS Attacks: How They Work, and How to Defend Against Them by Chris McNab: This book provides an in-depth analysis of DDoS attacks, including their methods and tools. It also offers advice on how to prevent and defend against DDoS attacks.

DDoS Attacks: Effective Strategies for Network Defense by Carlos M. S. Coelho and Paulo D. A. Silva: This book covers the technical aspects of DDoS attacks, as well as strategies for prevention and mitigation. It also includes case studies and real-world examples.

Hacker’s Guide to Distributed Denial of Service Attacks by William Buchanan: This book offers a practical guide to launching and defending against DDoS attacks. It includes case studies and tutorials on how to use different tools and techniques for launching and defending against DDoS attacks.

Cyberwar, Cyberterror, Cybercrime, and Cyberactivism by Julie Mehan: This book examines the different types of cyber attacks, including DDoS attacks, and their impact on society. It also explores the legal and ethical implications of cyber attacks.

The Basics of DDoS Attacks and Cyber Warfare: A Beginner’s Guide by Steve Deverall: This book provides an overview of DDoS attacks and cyber warfare for beginners. It includes explanations of technical terms and concepts.

Cybersecurity: Protecting Critical Infrastructures from Cyber Attack and Cyber Warfare by Thomas A. Johnson: This book covers a broad range of cyber security topics, including DDoS attacks, cyber warfare, and critical infrastructure protection. It includes case studies and practical guidance.

Network Security Bible by Eric Cole: This book covers a wide range of network security topics, including DDoS attacks. It includes practical guidance and case studies.

Botnets and Cybercrime by James T. Perry: This book provides an in-depth analysis of botnets and their use in cybercrime, including DDoS attacks. It includes case studies and technical details.

List of payloads Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

  1. UDP Flood: This attack floods the targeted server with User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets, overwhelming its ability to handle traffic.

  2. ICMP Flood: This attack sends a large number of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) packets to the targeted server, causing it to become unresponsive.

  3. SYN Flood: This attack exploits the way that TCP/IP protocols work by sending a large number of SYN requests to the server, overwhelming its ability to handle incoming connections.

  4. HTTP Flood: This attack sends a large number of HTTP requests to a targeted web server, often using bots or other automated tools.

  5. Slowloris: This attack sends a series of HTTP requests to a targeted web server, but never completes them, tying up the server’s resources and making it unavailable to other users.

  6. DNS Amplification: This attack uses misconfigured DNS servers to amplify traffic, overwhelming the targeted server with requests.

  7. NTP Amplification: This attack uses Network Time Protocol (NTP) servers to amplify traffic, overwhelming the targeted server with requests.

  8. Memcached Amplification: This attack uses misconfigured Memcached servers to amplify traffic, overwhelming the targeted server with requests.

  9. SSDP Amplification: This attack uses Simple Service Discovery Protocol (SSDP) servers to amplify traffic, overwhelming the targeted server with requests.

  10. RUDY (R-U-Dead-Yet?): This attack sends a series of HTTP POST requests with very large data payloads, tying up the server’s resources and making it unavailable to other users.

How to be protected from Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

  1. Use a Content Delivery Network: A CDN can help protect against DDoS attacks by distributing the traffic across multiple servers and data centers, making it difficult for attackers to overwhelm a single server.

  2. Implement DDoS protection services: there are many companies that offer DDoS protection services that can detect and mitigate attacks in real-time, often using machine learning algorithms.

  3. Monitor network traffic:  can help detect and block DDoS attacks in their early stages. This can be done using specialized tools and software.

  4. Keep software and hardware up to date:  with the latest security patches can help prevent vulnerabilities that attackers can exploit.

  5. Use firewalls and intrusion detection systems: can help block traffic from known malicious sources and identify potential DDoS attacks.

  6. Limit unnecessary traffic:  to your website or network can reduce the impact of a DDoS attack by minimizing the resources available to attackers.

  7. Plan and prepare for attacks: have a plan in place for responding to a DDoS attack, including procedures for notifying stakeholders, isolating affected systems, and restoring services.

Mitigations for Distributed Denial of Service Attacks

  1. Increasing network capacity can help absorb the impact of a DDoS attack by providing additional resources to handle the traffic.

  2. Load balancing can help distribute traffic across multiple servers, making it more difficult for attackers to overload a single server.

  3. Rate limiting can help limit the amount of traffic that is allowed to enter a network or server, reducing the impact of a DDoS attack.

  4. Intrusion prevention systems can detect and block DDoS attacks in real-time, often using machine learning algorithms.

  5. Cloud-based mitigation services can help detect and mitigate DDoS attacks by filtering traffic in the cloud before it reaches the target network or server.

  6. IP blacklisting can help block traffic from known malicious sources, reducing the impact of a DDoS attack.

  7. Traffic filtering can help identify and block traffic from known malicious sources, reducing the impact of a DDoS attack.

Conclusion

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are a serious threat to online services, networks, and businesses. These attacks can cause significant disruption, financial loss, and damage to an organization’s reputation.

DDoS attacks can be carried out using a variety of techniques, such as volumetric attacks, protocol attacks, and application attacks. Attackers often use botnets, which are networks of compromised devices, to launch DDoS attacks.

It’s important to regularly test protection measures and mitigations to ensure they are effective and up-to-date with the latest DDoS attack techniques. By taking these measures, organizations can improve their resilience against DDoS attacks and protect their online services, networks, and businesses.

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