16 Лют, 2024

Stored DOM XSS

Stored DOM XSS (Stored Document Object Model Cross-Site Scripting) is a type of web application security vulnerability that allows attackers to inject and store malicious scripts in a web application, which are then executed in the victim’s browser when infected pages are loaded. This differs from other types of XSS, such as Reflected XSS and DOM-based XSS, because the malicious script is stored on the web application server and can affect all users viewing the infected content.

Stored DOM XSS Stages

Stored DOM XSS, the attack occurs in two stages:

Введення

The attacker sends malicious code (usually via an input form such as comments, forum posts, or user profile fields) to a website that does not sufficiently filter or screen the input. The web application stores this malicious code in its database or on the server without proper processing.

Execution

When another user visits a page containing the stored malicious script, their browser executes the script as part of the page’s DOM. This can lead to various unwanted consequences including stealing cookies, sessions, personal data, performing actions on behalf of the user and other attacks.

Приклади експлуатації

To better understand the Stored DOM XSS vulnerability, let’s take a look at one of the labs from PortSwigger, a well-known web security company. This lab demonstrates a Stored DOM XSS vulnerability in blog comment functionality. To solve this lab, exploit this vulnerability to call the alert() function.

Let’s start by exploring the functionality of comments.

As we can see we have 4 fields for entering information. Let’s enter something into them and capture the request using the burp tool.

As we can see the request is URL encoded, let’s try to insert this payload <><img src="1" onerror="alert(1)">, and then back to the post page with our commenter.

As we can see the vulnerability worked. Everyone who visits this page will see this alert.

Scanners that detect vulnerabilities

  1. Burp Suite: One of the most popular web application AMAZON WEB SERVICES tools, Burp Suite offers advanced features for both automated and manual detection of vulnerabilities, including Stored DOM XSS.

  2. OWASP ZAP (Zed Attack Proxy): A free, open-source tool from OWASP designed to find vulnerabilities in web applications. ZAP can be used for automated scanning and also provides features for manual testing.

  3. Acunetix: A powerful commercial web application scanner capable of detecting a wide range of vulnerabilities, including Stored DOM XSS. Acunetix uses advanced technologies for analyzing and finding vulnerabilities.

  4. Veracode: platform offers automated tools for finding and fixing vulnerabilities in code, including Stored DOM XSS vulnerabilities, as part of the software development process.

  5. Detectify: This cloud-based web application security scanner leverages technologies developed by cybersecurity experts to detect vulnerabilities, including Stored DOM XSS, and provides detailed reports and recommendations for remediation.

  6. Netsparker: Another commercial web security scanner that detects vulnerabilities, including Stored DOM XSS, in web applications and web services, providing accurate results with minimal false positives.

Average CVSS score for Stored DOM XSS

The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) score for a vulnerability like Stored DOM XSS can vary widely based on the specific circumstances of each vulnerability, such as the complexity of the exploit, the required privileges, the level of user interaction, and the impact on confidentiality, integrity, and availability. CVSS scores range from 0 to 10, with 10 being the most severe.

Stored DOM XSS vulnerabilities can have a broad range of impacts, from minor to critical, depending on how they can be exploited and what data or systems can be compromised as a result. Generally, XSS vulnerabilities tend to have a moderate to high CVSS score, often falling in the range of 4.0 to 8.9, depending on the factors mentioned above.

For a precise CVSS score for a specific Stored DOM XSS vulnerability, one would need to analyze the particular vulnerability details and use the CVSS scoring calculator, taking into account the various metrics such as Attack Vector, Attack Complexity, Privileges Required, User Interaction, Scope, Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability.

To study Stored DOM XSS

1. Understand the Basics of XSS

Start with understanding Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities in general, including the different types: Reflected XSS, Stored XSS, and DOM-Based XSS.

Understand the specific characteristics that differentiate Stored DOM XSS from other types, focusing on how the malicious script is stored and executed within the DOM of the webpage.

2. Explore Stored DOM XSS Concepts

Gain a solid understanding of the Document Object Model (DOM) as it’s crucial for understanding how Stored DOM XSS attacks manipulate web pages.

Learn how attackers exploit Stored DOM XSS vulnerabilities, including the process of injecting malicious scripts, how those scripts are stored, and how they’re executed by the victim’s browser.

3. Practical Learning

Engage with interactive labs and platforms like Академія веб - безпеки PortSwigger, OWASP WebGoat, or Hack The Box, which offer practical exercises on XSS, including Stored DOM XSS.

Study documented cases of Stored DOM XSS vulnerabilities from CVE databases or security advisories to understand how they were exploited and fixed.

4. Defensive Programming

Understand how to prevent Stored DOM XSS attacks through secure coding practices, input validation, output encoding, and the use of Content Security Policy (CSP).

Familiarize yourself with security tools and scanners that can help identify potential XSS vulnerabilities in web applications.

5. Hands-On Practice

Create simple web applications and try to exploit Stored DOM XSS vulnerabilities in a controlled environment. Then, practice securing these applications.

If possible, contribute to open-source projects or participate in bug bounty programs to gain real-world experience in identifying and mitigating vulnerabilities.

How to be protected from Stored DOM XSS

• Ensure all user inputs are validated on both the client and server sides. Use allowlists for validation to accept only known safe inputs.

• Sanitize user inputs to prevent malicious data from being processed or stored.

• Utilize modern web frameworks and libraries that automatically escape user input. Frameworks like React, Angular, and Vue.js have built-in XSS protections.

• Use CSP as an additional security layer to detect and mitigate certain types of attacks, including XSS. CSP can restrict the resources that a browser is allowed to load, preventing the execution of unauthorized scripts.

• Implement secure session management using HTTPOnly and Secure flags in cookies to protect session tokens and other sensitive data from client-side script access.

• Conduct regular audits of your web applications for vulnerabilities. Utilize automated vulnerability scanners and static CODE ANALYSIS tools to detect potential Stored DOM XSS vulnerabilities.

Висновок

Stored DOM XSS vulnerabilities represent a critical risk to the security web applications by enabling attackers to inject and execute malicious scripts within the victim’s browser. This article has delved into the intricacies of Stored DOM XSS vulnerabilities, examining how they arise, their potential consequences for web applications, and the various methods to mitigate their exploitation.

To effectively safeguard against Stored DOM XSS attacks, a comprehensive security strategy is essential. This strategy should encompass diligent input validation and sanitization, the employment of secure coding practices, and the adoption of modern web frameworks that inherently mitigate XSS risks. Additionally, the implementation of Content Security Policies (CSP) can provide an extra layer of defense by restricting the types of content that can be executed within the web application.

Moreover, continuous education and training for developers on secure coding practices, alongside regular security assessments  and updates to web application components, are pivotal in preempting the exploitation of such vulnerabilities. The deployment of security tools and scanners to routinely identify and rectify vulnerabilities also plays a vital role in maintaining the security integrity of web applications.

By placing a strong emphasis on security and incorporating proactive security measures, organizations can effectively reduce the threat posed by Stored DOM XSS vulnerabilities. It is crucial for developers, security experts, and organizations to remain alert and informed about the latest security trends and best practices in web application security. This vigilance is key to defending against the sophisticated and evolving landscape of cyber threats, including Stored DOM XSS vulnerabilities.

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