26 Лют, 2024

Lack of secure coding practices

LSCP (Lack of Secure Coding Practices)

Is a general term used to describe situations where developers do not follow secure coding principles, which can lead to website vulnerabilities.

 Secure coding practices are essential to prevent vulnerabilities in software and web applications. These practices include principles and guidelines that developers follow to write code that is not only functional but also secure. However, it’s been reported that only 20% of newly hired developers receive secure coding training. This lack of secure coding practices can lead to serious security gaps in the application development lifecycle. In essence, the lack of secure coding practices means that developers might not be adequately trained or aware of how to write code that minimizes security risks. This can lead to software vulnerabilities that attackers can exploit, potentially leading to data breaches or other security incidents. Therefore, it’s crucial for organizations to invest in secure coding training for their developers and integrate secure coding practices throughout the entire development process. This can help mitigate common software vulnerabilities and enhance the overall security of the software.

Secure coding practices are essential to prevent vulnerabilities and ensure the safety of your software. Here are some best practices for secure coding:

 Code Minification and Obfuscation: Making your code harder to access and read can deter potential attackers.

 Avoid Shortcuts: It can be tempting to release code into production faster, but this could have serious security implications.

 Keep Software and Components Updated: Regularly patch known security vulnerabilities in the software and components you use.

 Use Automated Testing: Ensure that updates do not break your code’s functionality.

 Secure Coding Standards: Establish and follow secure coding standards.

 Secure Development Environment: Create a secure development environment built on a reliable and secure IT infrastructure using secure hardware, software, and services.

 Контроль доступу: Implement robust authentication and authorization mechanisms.

 OWASP Топ-10: Familiarize yourself with the OWASP Top 10, which features the most common security risks.

Examples of vulnerable code in different programming languages due to LSCP:

1.  Weak Passwords: This is a common vulnerability in any language that deals with user authentication. If the system allows weak passwords, it makes it easier for an attacker to guess the password through a brute force attack. Here’s an example in Python: 

 

“Insufficient Protection Against Stack Underflows” refers to a security vulnerability where a program or system does not implement adequate measures to prevent stack underflow attacks. Stack underflows occur when the program’s call stack, which is responsible for managing function calls and local variables, is manipulated to go beyond its allocated limits. This can lead to memory corruption, unauthorized access, and potential exploitation by attackers. Here’s a detailed description of this vulnerability:

Stack Underflow Scenario:

Call Stack Operation: During program execution, the call stack is used to manage function calls, local variables, and return addresses.

Insufficient Protection: Stack underflows occur when there is insufficient protection to prevent manipulation of the call stack, causing it to move below its allocated space.

Impact and Exploitation:

Memory Corruption: Manipulating the stack can result in memory corruption, affecting the integrity of local variables and return addresses.

Несанкціонований доступ: Attackers can potentially access sensitive information or execute arbitrary code by exploiting the stack underflow.

Загальні причини:

Incorrect Function Calls: Improper function calls or recursion without proper termination conditions can lead to stack underflows.

Buffer Overflows Affecting the Stack: Buffer overflows in local variables can impact the stack, leading to underflows.

Manipulation of Stack Pointers: Attackers may attempt to manipulate stack pointers to move beyond the allocated stack space.

Potential Consequences:

Program Crashes: Stack underflows can cause program crashes or unexpected terminations.

Data Corruption: Local variables and return addresses on the stack may be corrupted, leading to unpredictable behavior.

Security Exploits: Skilled attackers can exploit stack underflows to execute arbitrary code, gain unauthorized access, or compromise system security.

Mitigation Strategies:

Bounds Checking: Implement thorough bounds checking to ensure that stack operations stay within the allocated space.

Safe Function Usage: Utilize secure coding practices and safe function calls to prevent stack underflows.

Static Analysis Tools: Employ static code analysis tools to identify potential stack underflow vulnerabilities during the development phase.

Dynamic Analysis Tools: Use tools like AddressSanitizer or Valgrind to detect runtime memory errors, including stack underflows, during program execution.

Безпечні практики кодування: Follow secure coding practices, including avoiding recursive calls without proper termination conditions and validating user inputs.

In this example, the system is vulnerable to brute force attacks because it does not implement any password complexity requirements or account lockout mechanism after a certain number of failed attempts. 

2. Insecure Session IDs:
This vulnerability occurs when a web application assigns predictable session IDs to users. An attacker can guess the session IDs using a brute force attack.
Here’s an example in PHP:
 

In this example, the PHP application is vulnerable to brute force attacks because it uses predictable session IDs.

3. No Rate Limiting:
This vulnerability occurs when an application does not limit the number of requests an attacker can make in a given amount of time. This allows an attacker to carry out a brute force attack by making rapid successive attempts. Here’s an example in Node.js:

In this example, the Node.js application is vulnerable to brute force attacks because it does not implement rate limiting.

Examples of exploitation:

This is an example of a vulnerable brute-force web application with Burp Suit. 

Methodology of testing for LSCP:

1. Code Review:
This is the process of checking the source code to detect issues that might have been overlooked in the initial development phase. It includes checking the code against secure coding standards.

2. Статичний аналіз:
 This involves analyzing the code without executing it. Static analysis tools can automatically detect common vulnerabilities such as buffer overflows, SQL injection, and cross-site scripting.

3. Динамічний аналіз:
 This involves analyzing the code while it’s running. It can help detect runtime errors such as memory leaks and null pointer dereferencing.
 

4. Penetration Testing:
 This involves simulating an attack on the system to discover vulnerabilities. It can help identify weaknesses that might be exploited in a real-world attack.
 

5. Threat Modeling:
 This involves identifying potential threats and designing countermeasures to prevent or mitigate the effects of those threats.
 

6. Use of Security Frameworks and Libraries:
Using established security frameworks and libraries can help avoid common security mistakes.
 

7. Training and Awareness:
Developers should be trained in secure coding practices and be aware of the importance of security.
 

 

Tools that detect vulnerabilities:

 There are several tools available that can help detect vulnerabilities due to lack of secure coding practices. These tools are often categorized into two types: Static Application Security Testing (SAST) tools and Dynamic Application Security Testing (DAST) tools. 

SAST Tools: 

 Analyze source code or compiled versions of code to help find security flaws. 

 Can be integrated into your IDE to detect issues during software development. 

 Identify well-known vulnerabilities such as buffer overflows and SQL injection flaws. 

 Highlight the problematic code, by filename, location, line number, and even the affected code snippet. 

 However, they may have difficulty automating searches for many types of security vulnerabilities, including authentication problems, access control issues, insecure use of cryptography, and they may produce high numbers of false positives. 

Klocwork: Works with C, C#, C++, and Java codebases and is designed to scale with any size project. 

Checkmarx: Provides comprehensive solutions for SAST and is widely used in the industry. 

Veracode: Offers cloud-based application security services including SAST.

 CyberRes Fortify: Provides elements of both SAST and DAST testing. 

SpectralOps: Unique in the landscape since it scans the entire codebase. 

DAST Tools: 

 Scan web applications, normally from the outside, to look for security vulnerabilities such as Cross-site scripting, SQL Injection, Command Injection, Path Traversal, and insecure server configuration. 

 A large number of both commercial and open-source tools of this type are available, and all of these tools have their strengths and weaknesses.

Intruder: An automated, dynamic cloud-based vulnerability management solution. 

SOOS: A dynamic application security testing tool that partners with a software composition. 

Invicti: Formerly Netsparker, it’s particularly desirable for businesses that need to show compliance to HIPAA or PCI DSS. 

Acunetix: A dashboard of automated DAST that is suitable for use by the IT technicians of medium-sized to large enterprises. 

Veracode Dynamic Analysis: An easy-to-use test automation solution that integrates well into the DevOps cycle. 

 

Popular exploits:

Lack of secure coding practices can lead to a variety of vulnerabilities that can be exploited. Here are some of the most common types of exploits that can result from insecure coding practices: 

 Injection Attacks:
These occur when untrusted data is sent to an interpreter as part of a command or query. The attacker’s hostile data can trick the interpreter into executing unintended commands or accessing unauthorized data. 

 Порушений контроль доступу:
Restrictions on what authenticated users are allowed to do are often not properly enforced. Attackers can exploit these flaws to access unauthorized functionality and/or data, such as accessing other users’ accounts, viewing sensitive files, modifying other users’ data, changing access rights, etc. 

 Sensitive Data Exposure:
Many web applications and APIs do not properly protect sensitive data, such as financial, healthcare, and PII. Attackers may steal or modify such weakly protected data to conduct credit card fraud, identity theft, or other crimes. 

 XML External Entities (XXE):
Many older or poorly configured XML processors evaluate external entity references within XML documents. External entities can be used to disclose internal files using the file URI handler, internal file shares, internal port scanning, remote code execution, and denial of service attacks. 

 Security Misconfigurations:
Security misconfiguration is the most commonly seen issue. This is commonly a result of insecure default configurations, incomplete or ad hoc configurations, open cloud storage, misconfigured HTTP headers, and verbose error messages containing sensitive information. 

 Міжсайтовий скриптінг (XSS):
XSS flaws occur whenever an application includes untrusted data in a new web page without proper validation or escaping, or updates an existing web page with user-supplied data using a browser API that can create HTML or JavaScript. 

 Insecure Deserialization:
Insecure deserialization often leads to remote code execution. Even if deserialization flaws do not result in remote code execution, they can be used to perform attacks, including replay attacks, injection attacks, and privilege escalation attacks. 

 Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities:
Components, such as libraries, frameworks, and other software modules, run with the same privileges as the application. If a vulnerable component is exploited, such an attack can facilitate serious data loss or server takeover. 

 Insufficient Logging & Monitoring:
Insufficient logging and monitoring, coupled with missing or ineffective integration with incident response, allows attackers to further attack systems, maintain persistence, pivot to more systems to tamper with, extract, or destroy data.

 
 
 
 
 
 

How to test the Lack of Secure Practice:

 While it’s not appropriate to seek out vulnerable services or repositories for testing purposes without permission, there are several platforms designed specifically for learning and practicing secure coding techniques. Here are a few: 

 OWASP Juice Shop
This is an intentionally insecure web application developed by OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) for security training purposes.
 

 Веб-козел:
Another project by OWASP, WebGoat is a deliberately insecure application that allows interested developers to test vulnerabilities commonly found in Java-based applications.
 

 DVWA (Damn Vulnerable Web Application):
DVWA is a PHP/MySQL web application that is intentionally vulnerable. Its main goals are to be an aid for security professionals to test their skills and tools in a legal environment.
 

 Hack The Box: Hack The Box is an online platform that provides an environment to test and advance your skills in cybersecurity. 

Корисні курси, де попрактикуватися та відео, де можна почитати про цю вразливість:

Курси: 

 Secure Coding Practices Specialization by UC Davis on Coursera. This specialization is intended for software developers of any level who are not yet fluent with secure coding and programming techniques. 

 Secure Software Design Specialization by CU on Coursera. This course focuses on ensuring security as part of software design. 

 Secure Software Development Fundamentals Courses by The Open Source Security Foundation (OpenSSF). These courses are developed for software developers on how to develop secure software. 

Practice Platforms: 

 SonarQube is one of the most popular open-source platforms for continuous inspection of code quality. 

 Synopsys Coverity is another platform that can be used for secure code training. 

 DeepSource is a tool that can be used for secure code training. 

Відео: 

 Secure Software Development Concepts by Joseph Holbrook (The Cloud Tech Guy) on Udemy. This course provides an overview of secure software development concepts. 

List of books with review of vulnerability Lack of Secure Coding Practice:

 Fundamental Practices for Secure Software Development by SAFECode: This book includes updates to the fundamental practices to reflect current best practice, new technical considerations, and broader practices now considered foundational to a successful Secure Development Lifecycle (SDL) program. 

 Secure Software Development Methodologies: A Multivocal Literature Review by Arina Kudriavtseva, Olga Gadyatskaya: This paper provides an overview of security practices involved in 28 secure software development methodologies from industry, government, and academia. 

 Secure and Resilient Software Development by O’Reilly Media: This book teaches you how to apply best practices and standards for consistent and secure software development. 

Payloads Suitable for vulnerability LSCP:

 Secure coding practices can help prevent vulnerabilities. For example, using safe functions, handling data safely, and managing security risks inherent in the use of third-party components. 

 Input validation is a crucial practice to prevent vulnerabilities. It ensures only properly formed data is entering the workflow in an information system, preventing malformed data from persisting in the database and triggering malfunction of various downstream components. 

Sigma Rules / Firewall Rules to Block or Stop vulnerability LSCP:

 Sigma rules are textual signatures designed to facilitate the detection of anomalies and suspicious activities in log events. 

 Firewall best practices include hardening and properly configuring the firewall, planning your firewall deployment, and securing the firewall. 

 Disabling SMBv1 and blocking all versions of SMB at the network boundary by blocking TCP port 445 with related protocols on UDP ports 137-138 and TCP port 139, for all boundary devices. 

Useful Services for LSCP: 

 Secure Software Development Services by ScienceSoft include software requirements engineering, secure software design, development using the best practices of secure coding, regular code reviews by security experts, post-commit penetration testing, and establishing secure CI/CD pipelines. 

 Fundamental Practices for Secure Software Development by SAFECode provides guidance on secure software development. 

 OWASP Foundation provides resources on secure coding practices. 

Mitigating the vulnerability of LSCP involves adopting secure software development practices. Here are some key strategies:

Mitigating the vulnerability of “Lack of Secure Practice” involves adopting secure software development practices. Here are some key strategies:

 Shift Security Left:
Incorporate security early in the software development lifecycle. This approach ensures that security considerations are made from the beginning, rather than being an afterthought.

 Secure Coding Practices:
Establish coding standards and conventions, use safe functions only, handle data safely, and manage security risks inherent in the use of third-party components.

 Use Code Analysis Tools:
These tools can help find security issues early in the development process.

 Моделювання загроз: Assess
risk by creating a trusted component list and studying external security requirements.

 Automated Testing:
Regularly test your code for vulnerabilities. Automated testing can help identify issues early, before they become larger problems.

 Communication and Training:
Ensure that your development team is trained in secure coding practices and that these standards are communicated effectively.

 Third-Party Compliance:
If you’re working with third parties, verify their compliance with your security standards.

Висновок

 Lack of Secure Practice is a common vulnerability in software development that can lead to serious security risks. It arises when secure coding practices are not followed during the software development process. This can result in software that is vulnerable to attacks, data breaches, and other security threats.

Mitigation strategies include incorporating security early in the software development lifecycle, establishing secure coding standards, using code analysis tools, threat modeling, automated testing, and ensuring effective communication and training within the development team. It’s also important to verify the compliance of any third parties involved in the software development process.

In conclusion, secure coding practices are crucial in today’s interconnected, software-dependent world. Preventing potential exploits and attacks by writing better and more secure source code is key to delivering business value while minimizing security risks in software development. It’s not just about writing code that works – it’s about writing code that’s secure. 

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