10 Фев, 2023

Use of Hard-coded Credentials

Hard-coded credentials refer to the practice of embedding passwords, secret keys, or other sensitive information directly into the source code of an application or system. This information is usually used to access databases, web services, and other resources that require authentication.

The use of hard-coded credentials is considered to be a security risk because it makes it easy for an attacker to access sensitive information if they are able to obtain access to the source code. If the source code is made public, for example through a software repository like GitHub, the hard-coded credentials can be easily found and used by unauthorized parties.

Additionally, hard-coded credentials can also lead to difficulties in changing the passwords or secrets when they need to be updated. If the credentials are embedded in multiple places in the code, it can be time-consuming and error-prone to update them, which increases the risk of the sensitive information being compromised.

Пример уязвимого кода на разных языках программирования:

в Python:

				
					username = "admin"
password = "secret123"

def login():
    user = input("Enter username: ")
    passwd = input("Enter password: ")
    if user == username and passwd == password:
        print("Access granted")
    else:
        print("Access denied")
				
			


The code defines two variables, username и password, with the hard-coded values “admin” and “secret123”, respectively. The login function prompts the user to enter a username and password, and then checks if the entered values match the hard-coded credentials. If the entered values match, the function prints “Access granted”. If the entered values do not match, the function prints “Access denied”.

в Java:

				
					public class Login {
    private static final String USERNAME = "admin";
    private static final String PASSWORD = "secret123";

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in);
        System.out.print("Enter username: ");
        String user = input.nextLine();
        System.out.print("Enter password: ");
        String passwd = input.nextLine();
        if (user.equals(USERNAME) && passwd.equals(PASSWORD)) {
            System.out.println("Access granted");
        } else {
            System.out.println("Access denied");
        }
    }
}
				
			


The code defines two final variables, USERNAME и PASSWORD, with the hard-coded values “admin” and “secret123”, respectively. The main method prompts the user to enter a username and password using a Scanner object, and then checks if the entered values match the hard-coded credentials. If the entered values match, the method prints “Access granted”. If the entered values do not match, the method prints “Access denied”.

в JavaScript:

				
					const username = "admin";
const password = "secret123";

function login() {
    const user = prompt("Enter username: ");
    const passwd = prompt("Enter password: ");
    if (user === username && passwd === password) {
        console.log("Access granted");
    } else {
        console.log("Access denied");
    }
}
				
			


The code defines two constants, username и password, with the hard-coded values “admin” and “secret123”, respectively. The login function prompts the user to enter a username and password using the prompt method, and then checks if the entered values match the hard-coded credentials. If the entered values match, the function logs “Access granted” to the console. If the entered values do not match, the function logs “Access denied” to the console.

Examples of exploitation Use of Hard-coded Credentials

Here are some examples of how hard-coded credentials can be exploited:

Reverse Engineering: If an attacker is able to obtain the source code of an application, they can easily extract hard-coded credentials and use them to gain unauthorized access to sensitive resources, such as databases or web services.

Application Vulnerabilities: If an application has vulnerabilities, such as SQL injection or cross-site scripting (XSS), an attacker may be able to extract hard-coded credentials and use them to gain unauthorized access to sensitive resources.

Man-in-the-Middle Attacks: In a man-in-the-middle attack, an attacker intercepts communications between a client and a server, allowing them to see and potentially modify the data being transmitted. If an application uses hard-coded credentials for authentication, an attacker may be able to extract the credentials and use them to gain unauthorized access to sensitive resources.

Social Engineering: In a social engineering attack, an attacker tricks a user into revealing sensitive information, such as passwords or secret keys. If an application uses hard-coded credentials, an attacker may be able to use social engineering techniques to trick a developer or support personnel into revealing the credentials, allowing the attacker to gain unauthorized access to sensitive resources.

Malicious Insiders: If an application uses hard-coded credentials, a malicious insider, such as an employee or contractor, may be able to extract the credentials and use them to gain unauthorized access to sensitive resources. This can lead to data theft, data manipulation, or other forms of abuse.

Configuration Management: If an application uses hard-coded credentials, it may be difficult to change the credentials when they are no longer secure, such as when an employee leaves the organization. This can make it difficult to rotate credentials and keep sensitive resources secure.

Version Control: If an application uses hard-coded credentials, the credentials may be accidentally committed to version control systems, such as Git, allowing other users with access to the repository to see the credentials. This can make it easier for attackers to extract the credentials and use them to gain unauthorized access to sensitive resources.

Continuous Integration and Deployment (CI/CD): If an application uses hard-coded credentials, the credentials may be embedded in the application’s CI/CD pipeline, making it easier for attackers to extract the credentials and use them to gain unauthorized access to sensitive resources.

Privilege escalation techniques for Use of Hard-coded Credentials

Here are some common privilege escalation techniques that can be used to exploit hard-coded credentials:

  • Password Reuse: If an attacker is able to obtain hard-coded credentials, they may be able to use the same credentials to gain access to other systems that use the same username and password combination. This can lead to widespread compromise and allow the attacker to gain access to sensitive resources.

  • Default Accounts: If an application uses hard-coded credentials for default accounts, such as “admin” or “root”, the attacker may be able to use the credentials to gain administrative access to the application or the underlying system.

  • Elevated Privileges: If an application uses hard-coded credentials with elevated privileges, such as “root” or “administrator”, the attacker may be able to use the credentials to gain complete control over the application or the underlying system.

  • Unpatched Vulnerabilities: If an application uses hard-coded credentials, an attacker may be able to exploit unpatched vulnerabilities in the application or the underlying system to gain elevated privileges. For example, if a web application has an SQL injection vulnerability, the attacker may be able to extract the hard-coded credentials and use them to gain administrative access to the underlying database.

  • Man-in-the-Middle Attacks: If hard-coded credentials are transmitted over the network, an attacker may be able to intercept and steal the credentials using a man-in-the-middle attack. The attacker can then use the stolen credentials to gain unauthorized access to the application or the underlying system.

  • Brute Force Attacks: If an attacker is able to obtain hard-coded credentials, they may be able to use a brute force attack to guess the password. If the password is weak or easily guessable, the attacker may be able to gain elevated privileges.

  • Malicious Code Injection: If an attacker is able to inject malicious code into the application, they may be able to extract hard-coded credentials from the application’s memory. This can allow the attacker to gain elevated privileges and take control of the application or the underlying system.

  • Application Logic Flaws: If an application uses hard-coded credentials, an attacker may be able to exploit logic flaws in the application to gain elevated privileges. For example, if the application fails to properly validate user input, an attacker may be able to use this vulnerability to execute arbitrary code and extract hard-coded credentials.

  • Social Engineering: If an attacker is able to obtain hard-coded credentials, they may be able to use social engineering techniques to trick a user into giving up their credentials. For example, the attacker may send an email claiming to be from the IT department and asking the user to provide their credentials for “verification” purposes.

Methodology and checklist on testing for Use of Hard-coded Credentials

Методология:

  1. Code Review: Conduct a thorough code review to identify any hard-coded credentials. Look for strings that contain usernames, passwords, API keys, or other sensitive information. Pay special attention to any files or functions that are related to authentication, authorization, and configuration.

  2. File System Scan: Scan the file system of the application to identify any files that may contain hard-coded credentials. Pay special attention to configuration files, source code files, and logs.

  3. Network Traffic Analysis: Analyze network traffic to identify any requests that may contain hard-coded credentials. Pay special attention to requests to authentication endpoints, configuration endpoints, and logs.

  4. Reverse Engineering: Reverse engineer the application to identify any hard-coded credentials. Use techniques such as decompilation, deobfuscation, and dynamic analysis to identify strings that contain sensitive information.

  5. Automated Tools: Use automated tools, such as web scanners or penetration testing tools, to scan for applications that contain hard-coded credentials and extract the information for use in further attacks.

Контрольный список:

  1. Are all usernames and passwords stored securely, such as in encrypted configuration files or environment variables?

  2. Are all API keys, certificates, and other sensitive information stored securely?

  3. Are all authentication and authorization mechanisms secure and properly implemented?

  4. Are all logs and error messages sanitized to remove sensitive information?

  5. Are all default accounts, such as “admin” or “root”, secured with strong passwords or disabled?

Tools for exploiting Use of Hard-coded Credentials

Ручные Инструменты:

  • Burp Suite: A web application security testing tool that can be used to identify and exploit hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • OWASP ZAP: An open-source web application security scanner that can be used to identify and exploit hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • Nessus: A vulnerability scanning tool that can be used to identify hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • Nmap: A network exploration and security auditing tool that can be used to identify hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities in network protocols.

  • Netcat: A simple Unix utility that reads and writes data across network connections and can be used to identify and exploit hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • Wireshark: A network protocol analyzer that can be used to identify hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities in network traffic.

  • Fiddler: A web debugging proxy tool that can be used to identify and exploit hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • John the Ripper: A password cracking tool that can be used to crack hard-coded credentials.

  • Hashcat: A password cracking tool that can be used to crack hard-coded credentials.

  • Metasploit: An open-source framework for developing, testing, and executing exploits that can be used to identify and exploit hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

Автоматизированные инструменты:

  • sqlmap: An open-source tool that automates the process of detecting and exploiting SQL injection vulnerabilities and can be used to identify and exploit hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • Vega: An open-source web security scanner that can be used to identify and exploit hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • Acunetix: A commercial web vulnerability scanner that can be used to identify and exploit hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • Qualys: A cloud-based vulnerability management tool that can be used to identify hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • Rapid7 Nexpose: A vulnerability management tool that can be used to identify hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • OpenVAS: An open-source vulnerability management tool that can be used to identify hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • Tenable Nessus: A vulnerability management tool that can be used to identify hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • HP WebInspect: A web application security testing tool that can be used to identify and exploit hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • IBM AppScan: A web application security testing tool that can be used to identify and exploit hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • Checkmarx: A software security testing tool that can be used to identify hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities in code.

Плагины для браузера:

  • Firebug: A Firefox plugin that can be used to identify and exploit hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • Tamper Data: A Firefox plugin that can be used to modify HTTP requests and responses and identify hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

  • Web Developer Toolbar: A Chrome and Firefox plugin that can be used to identify and exploit hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities.

Avarage CVSS score Use of Hard-coded Credentials

The average CVSS (Common Vulnerability Scoring System) score for Use of Hard-coded Credentials vulnerabilities can vary depending on the specific instance and the severity of the vulnerability.

Typically, Use of Hard-coded Credentials vulnerabilities are considered to be high-severity vulnerabilities with a CVSS base score of around 7.0 – 9.0. This is due to the fact that hard-coded credentials often provide direct access to sensitive systems or data and can be easily exploited by attackers.

However, the exact CVSS score for a given Use of Hard-coded Credentials vulnerability will depend on factors such as the accessibility of the hard-coded credentials, the systems and data that the credentials provide access to, and the ease of exploitation.

CWE information about Use of Hard-coded Credentials

Here are the top 10 CWEs related to the Use of Hard-coded Credentials:

CWE-255: Credentials Management. This CWE encompasses a wide range of issues related to the management of credentials, including weak password policies, poor key management, and the use of hard-coded credentials.

CWE-798: Use of Hard-coded Credentials. This CWE specifically deals with the use of hard-coded credentials in software. This type of vulnerability can be easily exploited by attackers, as the credentials are often stored in plain text and can be easily accessed.

CWE-798: Use of Hard-coded Password. Similar to CWE-798, this CWE deals with the use of hard-coded passwords in software. This vulnerability can be especially dangerous if the password provides access to sensitive systems or data.

CWE-259: Hardcoded Password. This CWE is similar to CWE-798 and CWE-798 and deals with the use of hard-coded passwords in software.

CWE-321: Use of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key. This CWE deals with the use of hard-coded cryptographic keys in software. This type of vulnerability can be particularly dangerous, as attackers can use the hard-coded key to decrypt sensitive data.

CWE-759: Use of a One-Way Hash without a Salt. This CWE deals with the use of unsalted one-way hashes for storing passwords. This type of vulnerability can be easily exploited by attackers, as they can use pre-computed tables to reverse the hash and uncover the original password.

CWE-908: Use of Password Hash without a Salt. Similar to CWE-759, this CWE deals with the use of unsalted password hashes.

CWE-521: Weak Password Requirements. This CWE deals with weak password requirements, such as short password lengths, the absence of complexity requirements, and the reuse of passwords across multiple accounts.

CWE-320: Use of Insufficiently Random Values. This CWE deals with the use of insufficiently random values for cryptography or other security-critical operations. This type of vulnerability can make it easier for attackers to crack cryptographic keys or predict security-critical values.

CWE-539: Information Exposure Through Persistent Cookies. This CWE deals with the exposure of sensitive information through persistent cookies, such as session IDs or user IDs. This type of vulnerability can make it easier for attackers to steal sensitive information or impersonate other users.

Top 10 latests CVE related to Use of Hard-coded Credentials

CVE-2022-47618 – Merit LILIN AH55B04 & AH55B08 DVR firm has hard-coded administrator credentials. An unauthenticated remote attacker can use these credentials to log in administrator page, to manipulate system or disrupt service.

CVE-2022-4611 – A vulnerability, which was classified as problematic, was found in Click Studios Passwordstate and Passwordstate Browser Extension Chrome. This affects an unknown part. The manipulation leads to hard-coded credentials. It is possible to initiate the attack remotely. The exploit has been disclosed to the public and may be used. It is recommended to upgrade the affected component. The identifier VDB-216273 was assigned to this vulnerability.

CVE-2022-42973 – A CWE-798: Use of Hard-coded Credentials vulnerability exists that could cause local privilege escalation when local attacker connects to the database. Affected Products: APC Easy UPS Online Monitoring Software (Windows 7, 10, 11 & Windows Server 2016, 2019, 2022 – Versions prior to V2.5-GA), APC Easy UPS Online Monitoring Software (Windows 11, Windows Server 2019, 2022 – Versions prior to V2.5-GA-01-22261), Schneider Electric Easy UPS Online Monitoring Software (Windows 7, 10, 11 & Windows Server 2016, 2019, 2022 – Versions prior to V2.5-GS), Schneider Electric Easy UPS Online Monitoring Software (Windows 11, Windows Server 2019, 2022 – Versions prior to V2.5-GS-01-22261)

CVE-2022-42176 – In PCTechSoft PCSecure V5.0.8.xw, use of Hard-coded Credentials in configuration files leads to admin panel access.

CVE-2022-38420 – Adobe ColdFusion versions Update 14 (and earlier) and Update 4 (and earlier) are affected by a Use of Hard-coded Credentials vulnerability that could result in application denial-of-service by gaining access to start/stop arbitrary services. Exploitation of this issue does not require user interaction.

CVE-2022-38394 – Use of hard-coded credentials for the telnet server of CentreCOM AR260S V2 firmware versions prior to Ver.3.3.7 allows a remote unauthenticated attacker to execute an arbitrary OS command.

CVE-2022-35287 – Информационная очередь IBM Security Verify 10.0.2 содержит жестко закодированные учетные данные, такие как пароль или криптографический ключ, которые он использует для собственной входящей аутентификации, исходящей связи с внешними компонентами или шифрования внутренних данных. Идентификатор IBM X-Force: 230817.

CVE-2022-34840 – Use of hard-coded credentials vulnerability in multiple Buffalo network devices allows a network-adjacent attacker to alter?configuration settings of the device. The affected products/versions are as follows: WZR-300HP firmware Ver. 2.00 and earlier, WZR-450HP firmware Ver. 2.00 and earlier, WZR-600DHP firmware Ver. 2.00 and earlier, WZR-900DHP firmware Ver. 1.15 and earlier, HW-450HP-ZWE firmware Ver. 2.00 and earlier, WZR-450HP-CWT firmware Ver. 2.00 and earlier, WZR-450HP-UB firmware Ver. 2.00 and earlier, WZR-600DHP2 firmware Ver. 1.15 and earlier, and WZR-D1100H firmware Ver. 2.00 and earlier.

CVE-2022-34462 – Dell EMC SCG Policy Manager, versions from 5.10 to 5.12, contain(s) a Hard-coded Password Vulnerability. An attacker, with the knowledge of the hard-coded credentials, could potentially exploit this vulnerability to login to the system to gain admin privileges.

CVE-2022-34151 – Use of hard-coded credentials vulnerability exists in Machine automation controller NJ series all models V 1.48 and earlier, Machine automation controller NX7 series all models V1.28 and earlier, Machine automation controller NX1 series all models V1.48 and earlier, Automation software ‘Sysmac Studio’ all models V1.49 and earlier, and Programmable Terminal (PT) NA series NA5-15W/NA5-12W/NA5-9W/NA5-7W models Runtime V1.15 and earlier, which may allow a remote attacker who successfully obtained the user credentials by analyzing the affected product to access the controller.

List of popular exploits Use of Hard-coded Credentials

Some of the most popular include:

  • Reverse Engineering: Attackers can reverse-engineer software to uncover hard-coded credentials and other sensitive information.

  • Password Cracking: Attackers can use password cracking techniques, such as dictionary attacks and brute force attacks, to crack passwords stored in software.

  • Information Theft: Attackers can steal sensitive information, such as usernames and passwords, by accessing hard-coded credentials stored in software.

  • Remote Code Execution: Attackers can execute malicious code on a target system by using hard-coded credentials stored in software.

  • Authentication Bypass: Attackers can bypass authentication mechanisms by using hard-coded credentials stored in software.

  • Privilege Escalation: Attackers can escalate their privileges on a target system by using hard-coded credentials stored in software.

  • Data Theft: Attackers can steal sensitive data, such as credit card numbers, by accessing hard-coded credentials stored in software.

  • Denial of Service: Attackers can cause a denial of service by using hard-coded credentials stored in software to overload a target system.

Where to test for Use of Hard-coded Credentials?

There are several places where you can test for the Use of Hard-coded Credentials vulnerability, including:

  1. Source Code: You can review the source code of software applications to see if any hard-coded credentials are present.

  2. Configuration Files: You can examine configuration files to see if any hard-coded credentials are present.

  3. Binary Files: You can reverse-engineer binary files to see if any hard-coded credentials are present.

  4. Network Traffic: You can examine network traffic to see if any hard-coded credentials are being transmitted in plaintext.

  5. API Endpoints: You can examine API endpoints to see if any hard-coded credentials are present.

  6. Web Applications: You can test web applications to see if any hard-coded credentials are present in the client-side code.

  7. Mobile Applications: You can test mobile applications to see if any hard-coded credentials are present in the application code.

It’s important to note that these are just a few examples of places where you can test for the Use of Hard-coded Credentials vulnerability. In order to effectively test for this vulnerability, it’s recommended to use a combination of manual and automated testing methods, as well as to conduct regular security assessments.

Books with review of Use of Hard-coded Credentials

“Web Application Hacker’s Handbook” by Dafydd Stuttard and Marcus Pinto: This book is a comprehensive guide to hacking web applications. It covers a wide range of topics, including the basics of web application security, as well as advanced topics such as SQL injection, cross-site scripting, and exploitation techniques. The book also provides detailed information on the use of hard-coded credentials, including how to identify and exploit these types of vulnerabilities.

“The Art of Software Security Assessment” by Mark Dowd, John McDonald, and Justin Schuh: This book is a comprehensive guide to the practice of software security assessment. It covers a wide range of topics, including reverse engineering, penetration testing, and vulnerability analysis. The book also provides detailed information on the use of hard-coded credentials and provides practical guidance on how to identify and prevent these types of vulnerabilities.

“Black Hat Python” by Justin Seitz: This book is a guide to writing python code for security purposes. It covers a wide range of topics, including network scanning, brute force attacks, and exploitation techniques. The book also provides information on how to use python to automate various security testing tasks, including the identification of hard-coded credentials.

“Gray Hat Hacking” by Allen Harper, Rob Shein, and Chris Eagle: This book is a guide to the practice of gray hat hacking. It covers a wide range of topics, including reverse engineering, exploitation techniques, and vulnerability analysis. The book also provides information on the use of hard-coded credentials and provides practical guidance on how to identify and prevent these types of vulnerabilities.

“Хакерство: искусство эксплуатации” by Jon Erickson: This book is a comprehensive guide to the practice of hacking. It covers a wide range of topics, including network scanning, exploitation techniques, and reverse engineering. The book also provides information on the use of hard-coded credentials and provides practical guidance on how to identify and prevent these types of vulnerabilities.

“Тестирование на проникновение: практическое введение во взлом” by Georgia Weidman: This book provides a hands-on introduction to penetration testing, with a focus on practical skills and techniques. It covers a wide range of topics, including network scanning, exploitation techniques, and post-exploitation activities.

“Metasploit: руководство по тестированию на проникновение” by David Kennedy, Jim O’Gorman, Devon Kearns, and Mati Aharoni: This book provides a comprehensive guide to using the Metasploit framework for penetration testing. It covers a wide range of topics, including network scanning, exploitation techniques, and post-exploitation activities.

“Advanced Penetration Testing for Highly-Secured Environments” by Lee Allen and Aaron Warner: This book provides an advanced guide to penetration testing, with a focus on testing highly-secured environments. It covers a wide range of topics, including advanced exploitation techniques, post-exploitation activities, and covert operations.

List of payloads suitable for Use of Hard-coded Credentials

There are several types of payloads that can be used for exploiting hard-coded credentials vulnerabilities, some of them are:

  1. Reverse Shell Payload: This payload can be used to remotely connect to a target system and execute commands on it.

  2. Command Injection Payload: This payload allows an attacker to execute arbitrary commands on a target system.

  3. SQL Injection Payload: This payload allows an attacker to inject malicious SQL code into a database to access sensitive information or perform unauthorized actions.

  4. Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Payload: This payload allows an attacker to inject malicious code into a web page, which can be executed by other users who view the page.

  5. Remote File Inclusion (RFI) Payload: This payload allows an attacker to include a remote file on a target system, which can contain malicious code.

  6. Arbitrary File Upload Payload: This payload allows an attacker to upload a file to a target system, which can contain malicious code.

  7. DLL Injection Payload: This payload allows an attacker to inject malicious code into a running process on a target system.

Mitigations for Use of Hard-coded Credentials

  1. Use of secrets management solutions: These solutions help store and manage secrets, such as passwords and other sensitive data, in a secure manner. This eliminates the need to hard-code secrets into applications and systems.

  2. Encryption of secrets: Encrypting secrets can make it more difficult for attackers to access and use them, even if they are obtained through exploitation.

  3. Regular rotation of secrets: Regularly changing secrets can reduce the time that an attacker has to use them, even if they are obtained through exploitation.

  4. Access control: Implementing proper access controls can limit the ability of attackers to access systems and applications that contain hard-coded credentials.

  5. Code reviews: Conducting regular code reviews can help identify and address instances of hard-coded credentials before they are deployed into production environments.

  6. Automated tools: Automated tools can be used to scan applications and systems for hard-coded credentials and alert administrators when they are found.

  7. User training: Training users on best practices for secure development and operations can help reduce the number of instances of hard-coded credentials in applications and systems.

How to be protected from Use of Hard-coded Credentials

  1. Use strong, unique passwords: Using strong, unique passwords for all accounts can help prevent attackers from accessing sensitive information and systems if hard-coded credentials are exploited.

  2. Enable two-factor authentication (2FA): Enabling two-factor authentication for all accounts can provide an additional layer of protection in the event that hard-coded credentials are exploited.

  3. Keep software and systems up-to-date: Keeping software and systems up-to-date with the latest security patches and updates can help address vulnerabilities that may be exploited to access hard-coded credentials.

  4. Use encryption: Encrypting sensitive information and systems can help prevent attackers from accessing this information if hard-coded credentials are exploited.

  5. Limit access to sensitive information: Limiting access to sensitive information to only those who need it can reduce the risk of this information being accessed or misused in the event of a breach.

  6. Implement network segmentation: Implementing network segmentation can help prevent attackers from accessing sensitive information and systems in the event that hard-coded credentials are exploited.

  7. Use secrets management solutions: Using secrets management solutions can help prevent hard-coded credentials from being stored in applications and systems, reducing the risk of exploitation.

  8. Conduct regular security assessments: Regular security assessments can help identify and address instances of hard-coded credentials before they are exploited.

Заключение

The use of hard-coded credentials poses a significant threat to the security of individuals and organizations. By storing sensitive information, such as passwords and usernames, directly within the code of an application or system, hard-coded credentials can make it easier for attackers to access sensitive information and systems. To reduce the risk of exploitation, it is important to implement strong passwords, enable two-factor authentication, keep software and systems up-to-date, use encryption, limit access to sensitive information, implement network segmentation, use secrets management solutions, and conduct regular security assessments. It is also important to be vigilant and proactive in identifying and addressing instances of hard-coded credentials, as well as continuously updating security measures in response to new and emerging threats.

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