30 Май, 2023

First steps in protecting smart contracts

This article aims to offer valuable recommendations for individuals who are embarking on their journey into the realm of smart contract security. Furthermore, it serves as a valuable resource for smart contract developers seeking to enhance the security measures implemented within their own smart contracts.

What exactly is a smart contract, and what language do they use to write them?

A smart contract it is a piece of code that defines and enforces the rules and conditions for a specific digital transaction. Smart contracts automatically execute actions and transactions when predetermined conditions are met, without the need for intermediaries. They provide transparency, security, and efficiency in various applications such as financial transactions, supply chain management, and decentralized applications (dApps).

There are such programming languages as: 

Solidity: The most popular programming language for creating smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain is called Solidity. It is a contract-oriented, statically typed language with syntax resembling JavaScript. Solidity is supported by technologies like the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) and the Truffle framework and was created expressly for building Ethereum smart contracts.

Vyper: The most popular programming language for creating smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain is called Solidity. It is a contract-oriented, statically typed language with syntax resembling JavaScript. Solidity is supported by technologies like the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) and the Truffle framework and was created expressly for building Ethereum smart contracts.

Rust: A systems programming language called Rust is well recognized for emphasizing concurrency, efficiency, and memory safety. The Substrate architecture, which underpins blockchain applications like Polkadot and Kusama, is growing in popularity for its use in creating smart contracts. For developing blockchain applications, Rust provides a high level of control and safety.

Chaincode (Go): Go may be used to create Chaincode, commonly referred to as “Smart Contracts” in the context of Hyperledger Fabric. Go is the main language for creating smart contracts on Hyperledger Fabric, an enterprise-grade blockchain infrastructure.

Michelson: The high-level, stack-based language Michelson is used to create smart contracts on the Tezos network. It is intended to guarantee the accuracy and security of Tezos smart contracts and features a formal verification-friendly architecture.

These are only some of the most well-known programming languages. Solidity is now the most widely used programming language. So, we advise you to use it as a starting point for your research into smart contract security.

Pentesting tools for smart contracts

Here, we’ll discuss the tools we employ and where you may find them. Let’s consider a few:

Mythril

Mythril is a security analysis tool for EVM bytecode. It detects security vulnerabilities in smart contracts built for Ethereum, Hedera, Quorum, Vechain, Roostock, Tron and other EVM-compatible blockchains. It uses symbolic execution, SMT solving and taint analysis to detect a variety of security vulnerabilities. It’s also used (in combination with other tools and techniques) in the MythX security analysis platform.

https://github.com/ConsenSys/mythril

Slither

Slither is a Solidity static analysis framework written in Python3. It runs a suite of vulnerability detectors, prints visual information about contract details, and provides an API to easily write custom analyses. Slither enables developers to find vulnerabilities, enhance their code comprehension, and quickly prototype custom analyses.

https://github.com/crytic/slither

Securify

Securify 2.0 is a security scanner for Ethereum smart contracts supported by the Ethereum Foundation и ChainSecurity. The core research behind Securify was conducted at the Secure, Reliable, and Intelligent Systems Lab at ETH Zurich.

https://github.com/eth-sri/securify2

Echidna

Echidna is a weird creature that eats bugs and is highly electrosensitive (with apologies to Jacob Stanley)

More seriously, Echidna is a Haskell program designed for fuzzing/property-based testing of Ethereum smart contracts. It uses sophisticated grammar-based fuzzing campaigns based on a contract ABI to falsify user-defined predicates or Solidity assertions. We designed Echidna with modularity in mind, so it can be easily extended to include new mutations or test specific contracts in specific cases.

https://github.com/crytic/echidna

Training grounds

Realizing that practice is very important, we offer you several training sites.

Сapturetheether

https://capturetheether.com/challenges/

There are 19 different tasks in different categories, which in turn will improve you as a specialist.

 

Openzeppelin

https://ethernaut.openzeppelin.com/

There are 30 different tasks in different categories, which in turn will improve you as a specialist.

DamnVulnerableDefi

https://www.damnvulnerabledefi.xyz/

There are 19 different tasks in different categories, which in turn will improve you as a specialist.

Заключение

You will discover information in this post to help you hone your smart contract auditing abilities. We have offered training grounds for enhancing practical abilities in addition to theoretical.

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